Comorbid Concerns of Primary Care Patients with Sleep Concerns: Is Age a Meaningful Predictor?

Primary Author

Casey Zapata

Additional Author(s)

Demetrius Carter, Samantha Mladen, Emily Donovan, Amber Fox, Kristen O’Loughlin, Kendall Fugate-Laus, Bruce Rybarczyk

Faculty Mentor

Bruce Rybarczyk


Comorbid Concerns of Primary Care Patients with Sleep Concerns: Is Age a Meaningful Predictor?

Casey Zapata1, Demetrius Carter1, Samantha Mladen, M.S.1, Emily Donovan, B.A.1, Amber Fox, B.A.1, Kristen O’Loughlin, M.A.1, Kendall Fugate-Laus, B.S.1, Bruce Rybarczyk, Ph.D.1
1 Department of Psychology, 2 Department of Health, Physical Education, and Exercise

Background/Aims – Now that behavioral health integration in primary care is being more widely adopted, the research is able to expand by obtaining more data on mental health concerns, such as depression and anxiety. Integrated primary care (IPC) has demonstrated that patients who report a primary concern, often have other underlying conditions that may affect them. Within the literature, it seems that sleep is a growing consistent concern for individuals as a whole, so this project aims to broadly assess sleep as a top concern, along with other issues that may be reported (Borge et al., 2015). Specifically, we examined the other reported top problems of patients who reported sleep as a concern. Additionally, age was analyzed as a predictor of whether sleep was reported as a concern.

Methods – The data were collected across three safety-net clinics in the Richmond area. The sample consisted of 96 adult patients: 68 female (71%), 24 male (25%), 1 nonbinary (1%), and 3 not collected (3%); 54 African-American (56%), 29 White (30%), 1 Asian (1%), 1 Other (1%), and 11 not collected (12%). SPSS was used for all analyses. Descriptive statistics were used to assess most commonly appearing concerns reported alongside sleep A binary logistic regression was used to identify whether age was a significant predictor of sleep concerns in our sample.

Results – 54 patients (56%) reported sleep as a concern: 43 women (80%) and 11 men (20%). Among these, other concerns indicated: anxiety 89% (39 female, 9 male), depression 78% (33 female, 9 male) ; stress 87% (38 female, 9 male); irritability 69% (30 female, 7 male); and pain 58.1% (25 female, 7 male). Based on a classification threshold predicted probability of target group membership of .5, the overall model was not statistically significant, Χ2(1) = .064, p = 0.800. Classification success for the cases based on a classification cutoff value of .5 for predicting sleep concerns was low, with an overall prediction success rate of 56.7% for participants who indicated sleep being a concern.

Discussion – Of the 96 patients within the sample, 54 patients reported sleep as an issue, along with anxiety, depression, stress, irritability and pain. In regards to these issues it was observed that women had higher reports of sleep problems than the men. The literature review also found the same results, however our data sample was a bit skewed with more female patients than male. The model initially processed the data predicting that everyone would list sleep as a concern, but the model only got 56.7 correct. Overall, it seems that age is not a good predictor of sleep concerns, but we hypothesize that this is because of our sample size being small. The major implication of this study is that there needs to be further research with larger sample sizes.


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